Advancement Milestones

The following are advancement milestones in cancer research and treatment. This is not an exhaustive list. Complete statistics are available from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

1973: National Cancer Act signed by President Nixon on December 23, 1973. First eight comprehensive cancer centers recognized. Today there are 26. These centers support a strong core of research in several fields, community-based cancer prevention programs, training and education for health care professionals, and studies offering patients access to new therapies.

1975: Technology developed for production of monoclonal antibodies.

1976: First of some 50 now-known proto-oncogenes discovered (src).

1976: Cancer Information Service (CIS) opened. This nationwide telephone information and education network currently receives about 2,500 calls daily (1-800-4-CANCER).

1979: Total mastectomy replaced radical mastectomy for breast cancer.

1970's: Established important role of proto-oncogenes in normal cellular control.

Late 1970's: Limb-sparing surgeries developed for sarcomas of the extremities.

1970's & 1980's: Epidemiologic studies link certain types of cancer risk to factors such as: infectious agents, hormonal drugs, diet and nutrition, and exposure to ionizing radiation.

1981: First human cancer vaccine introduced. (Hepatitis B virus for liver cancer).

1983: PDQ (Physician Data Query) went online. PDQ is a computer database containing current cancer disease descriptions and therapies, research studies with new drugs, and directories of physicians and organizations involved in cancer care.

1983: Community Clinical Oncology Programs launched. Community physicians collaborate with scientists conducting NCI-supported studies on preventing or treating cancer. The programs bring medical advances to patients in their own communities.

1989: Human Gene Mapping database established.

1990: First chemoprevention trial to show efficacy. (Vitamin A analogue against mouth and throat tumors).

1991: First human gene therapy for cancer (melanoma) introduced.

1991: NCI-sponsored studies in China show importance of nutrition in preventing cancer.

1993: Saint Joseph Mercy Hospital becomes a member of the Toledo CCOP.

1993: Cancer Research Advances: First of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer genes cloned (hMSH2).

1994-95: Saint Joseph Mercy Hospital applies for and is awarded a three year CCOP Grant. The name of the new CCOP is the Ann Arbor Regional CCOP.

1994-95: Cancer Research Advances: Inherited breast cancer genes cloned (BRCA1 and BRCA2).

1996: St John Hospital and Medical Center joins the MCRC-CCOP.

1997: The MCRC-CCOP provides access to to patients with gynecological cancers to the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) clinical trials.

1997: Genesys Regional Medical Center Joins the MCRC-CCOP.

1998: STAR (Study of Tamoxifen & Raloxifen) breast cancer prevention award from NSABP.

1998: MCRC-CCOP is awarded a five-year grant from NCI for cancer research.

1998: Hurley Medical Center joins the MCRC-CCOP.

2000: SELECT (Selenium & Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial) for prostate cancer award from SWOG.

2000: St John Macomb Hospital joins the MCRC-CCOP.

2000: Saint Mary's of Michigan - Saginaw joins the MCRC-CCOP.

2001: Genesys Regional Medical Center and Hurly Medical Center join forces to build the Genesys-Hurley Cancer Institute, a comprehensive cancer center in the Flint community.

2003: MCRC puts 2,639 patients on research studies since its inception.

2003: MCRC-CCOP is awarded a second five-year grant for cancer research.

2004: Oakwood Healthcare System joins the MCRC-CCOP.

2004: Foot Healthcare System - Jackson requests membership in the MCRC-CCOP.